The Destruction of Army Group Center, 1944. France in the mid-1630’s was fearful of a strong and unchallenged Holy Roman Empire. France was not in such a favourable position and Richelieu had to raise loans, sell government offices to the highest bidder (though not necessarily the most talented) and to place government tax inspectors (Intendants) on permanent location in the provinces to ensure that taxes that were due for Paris actually got there. Its distal causes reside in the previous century, at the political-religious settlement of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Peace of Augsburg. Huge mercenary armies did not so much fight strategic battles as constantly maneuver, plunder, and forage, all the while collecting wages of death. These defections freed Swedish general Lennart Torstensson to invade Moravia and Silesia. The Winter King: Frederick V of the Palatinate and the Coming of the Thirty Years' War by Brennan C. … The majority of the citizens from the Bohemian Kingdom were Protestants. In the last phase of the Thirty Years’ War, the most dominant player on the Protestant side was Catholic France. Choose from 500 different sets of 30 years war flashcards on Quizlet. In January 1643, his most competent minister, Olivares, was dismissed. The French Huguenot general, Rohan, was sent to help the Swiss Protestants in a campaign to overthrow the Valtelline. However, the ‘‘German war’’ was no longer solely a German affair: it was a general war involving all the major powers, which meant it could not be ended by a settlement crafted by Germans alone. In February 1635, France had provided the Dutch with 20,000 men to deploy as the Dutch saw fit. France failed to capitalise on these problems as in December 1642, Richelieu had died, closely followed by Louis XIII in May 1643. And most raids achieved little because of an abiding inability to supply mid-17th century armies on the move and the inherent superiority of fortified defenses. Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne (11 September 1611, Sedan, Ardennes – 27 July 1675). Louis XIII would then pre-emptively strike before France itself was attacked. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, … This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. With each successive phase, the war became more continental in scope, bloodier, and more focused on political power than religion. And so, for 13 years more the armies battled. There had been a general European desire for peace since 1640, but no one country was prepared to give up hard-won gains. What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin? During the fourth phase (1635-48), the war was waged by the Swedish and French against Germany. The Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648) France enters the war and dominates. Like any new emperor or king, Ferdinand had to proved himself but his start was less than auspicious. ( Log Out /  Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The Thirty Years' War was a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Germany.It originated in the commingling of politics and religion that was common in Europe at the time. ... French phase. In 1642, Phillip IV tried to crush the Catalan rebellion but failed. Danish phase. The German Electors had no faith in France . The new phase saw the German war expanded into an international conflict. She had proclaimed herself as the saviour against the domination of Europe by the Holy Roman Emperor, but how could a nation that had been invaded warrant the status of protector of European liberties ? A determinative battle was Second Breitenfeld (November 2, 1642) where Torstensson destroyed an Imperial army and Ferdinand III’s hope to avoid major concessions to Sweden in the final settlement. ( Log Out /  France, therefore, needed alliances. Christian IV of Denmark came into the fighting, principally because of his fear of the rise of Hapsburg power in N Germany; he openly avowed religious motives but hoped also to enlarge his German possessions. During these last years, given the strength of fortified defenses and the still unsolved problems of mid-17th century logistics, deep cavalry raiding was about the most either side could undertake. With this internal disruption, France could not follow a more aggressive foreign policy. Thirty Years War: The Franco-Swedish Period France entered openly into the war in 1635. The Protestants were mostly Czechs which makes sense since most of them were in Prague. The four phases of the thirty years can be summarised as the Bohemian phase, Danish phase, Swedish phase and French phase, which induced the Holy Roman Empire to lose money and caused the empire to split. In March 1635, France had once again cut off the Valtelline. Regardless of the defeat at Torgau, Sweden marched into, The causes of the Thirty Years War in Western Europe: By 1600, two camps had emerged in western Europe: France and the United Provinces The…. For four years France pursued these grand strategic goals with an inadequate military system, with poor armies badly led by inept generals. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The other important battle of this last phase of the war was Rocroi (May 19, 1643), where the seasoned but sullen and shrunken Army of Flanders was defeated by a French army of 22,000 led by the ‘‘Great Conde´’’ (Louis II). 30 Years War Began: Definition. Besides, France and Spain had fought an undeclared but bitter frontier war for years in northern Italy and along the Spanish Road, even after the formal end of the Mantuan war in 1631. Because neither the empire nor the Protestants could deliver the knockout punch, the fighting dragged on and on. The siege of Breisach was a success and allowed the French to cut the Spanish Road once more. Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. Sweden did not recover from this debacle for several years. This threat persuaded Richelieu that France must enter the war directly at long last, that fighting the Habsburgs through subsidized proxies was no longer enough. French military involvement in the Thirty Years War got off to a poor start. Though a German state, Trier had been under French protection since 1631. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. The Bohemian Phase was the start of the 30 Years war. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in. With Catholicism secure in France following Richelieu’s crushing of the last Huguenot military resistance in 1628, France was free to act for raison d’etat (reason of state) against the Habsburg powers rather than out of delusional confessional loyalty. Play this game to review World History. Holy Roman Empire promised tolerance of Protestantism in Hungary after more Habsburg defeats in 1645. Regardless of the defeat at Torgau, Sweden marched into Bohemia and reached the suburbs of Prague. Barbarossa to ‘Berlog’ – Soviet Air Force, Rome Military mid-fourth century to the mid-third century BC, Rommel Recaptures Cyrenaica, January 1942, Russian Weapons, that are currently in service…, A Lesson of History: The Luftwaffe and Barbarossa. Though it got off to a poor start, the French army would eventually drive Spanish and Austrian armies back across German states. This gave Sweden the opportunity to occupy most of northern Germany. French intervention—which guaranteed a great widening of the war— occurred just as Ferdinand and the German princes reached an accommodation that might have ended it: the Peace of Prague (May 30, 1635). In April 1635, Sweden and France signed the Treaty of Compiegne. The Spanish themselves were also experiencing problems at home. The war was unmatched in its duration and intensity—conflicts like the Hundred Years War actually contained long periods of peace, but the Thirty Years’ War saw fighting continue for three straight decades, making it Europe’s longest continuous conflict. In October 1636, the Holy Roman Empire’s army had been defeated by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by Ferdinand. The United Provinces also added to the misery of the Holy Roman Empire. Not every German prince waited: in July 1641, Friedrich Wilhelm (1640– 1688), the new ‘‘Great Elector’’ of Brandenburg, agreed to a ceasefire with Sweden; in January 1642, the Welf dukes of Brunswick also dropped out of the war (Treaty of Goslar). To sustain the above, Richelieu needed favourable finances. This split gave hope to Vienna and Madrid that they could still win by dividing their enemies. France had to endure a three-pronged attack. The Battle of Torgau forced the Swedes back to Pomerania and the Swedes could only stay in the field thanks to the financial aid given to them by the French in the Treaty of Hamburg of 1638. THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE, Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of the Great Patriotic War. 10th - 11th grade. France also had success in north Italy where Bernard of Weimar successfully besieged Breisach after defeating the Holy Roman Empire’s army at Rheinfelden. 462 times. In May 1635, France declared war on Spain. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. Though the attack on France failed, the prestige of France as a nation had suffered. From September 1640 to October 1641, the full Imperial Diet met for the first time since 1613, to work out the negotiating positions of the Empire for any future peace talks. The Cardinal failed to maintain his push and he too was pushed back from Paris. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. https://great-home-decorations.com/the-30-years-war-catholics-vs-protestants Despite defeating the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in May 1643, France was unable to mount a serious campaign in Europe as military exhaustion had broken out throughout Europe. Thanks to Xios, Alan Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, William Crabb, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons. 1618-1625-- Ferdinand II began to persecute Protestants-- The Defenestration of Prague- 2 officials were thrown from a window and was the opening act of Bohemian Rebellion. 4 Phases of 30 Years War: ... French: Term. He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. In addition, the anti-Habsburg coalition did not agree on what sort of peace it should force on the Habsburg powers, with Sweden concentrating on the German war and desperate for territorial and financial compensation for its ruinous military effort and France more concerned with defeating Spain. The French Phase
1634 – 1648
The French were threatened by the growing strength of the Habsburgs
France declared war on Spain and increased its pressure on the H.R.E.
The French and Swedish gained much land during the later years of this phase
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